Writing

Writing Years 1 and 2
 
 
By the end of Year 1 pupils should have a basic grasp of all of this content. By the end of Year 2 pupils should have an advancing understanding of this content, whilst some will have a deep understanding.
 
In Years 1 and 2:
  • Say first and then write to tell others about ideas.
  • Write for a variety of purposes.
  • Plan by talking about ideas and writing notes.
  • Use some of the characteristic features of the type of writing used.
  • Write, review and improve.
  • Use well-chosen adjectives to add detail.
  • Use names of people, places and things.
  • Use well-chosen adjectives.
  • Use nouns and pronouns for variety.
  • Use adverbs for extra detail.
  • Re-read writing to check it makes sense.
  • Use the correct tenses.
  • Organise writing in line with its purpose.
  • Write about more than one idea.
  • Group related information.
  • Write so that other people can understand the meaning of sentences.
  • Sequence sentences to form clear narratives.
  • Convey ideas sentence by sentence.
  • Join sentences with conjunctions and connectives.
  • Vary the way sentences begin.
  • Sit correctly and hold a pencil correctly.
  • Begin to form lower-case letters correctly.
  • Form capital letters.
  • Form digits 0-9.
  • Understand letters that are formed in similar ways.
  • Form lower-case letters of a consistent size.
  • Begin to join some letters.
  • Write capital letters and digits of consistent size.
  • Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.
  • Spell words containing 40+ learned phonemes.
  • Spell common exception words (the, said, one, two and the days of the week).
  • Name letters of the alphabet in order.
  • Use letter names to describe spellings of words.
  • Add prefixes and suffixes, learning the rule for adding s and es as a plural marker for nouns, and the third person singular marker for verbs (I drink - he drinks).
  • Use the prefix un.
  • Use suffixes where no change to the spelling of the root word is needed: helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest.
  • Use spelling rules.
  • Write simple sentences dictated by the teacher.
  • Spell by segmenting words into phonemes and represent them with the correct graphemes.  
  • Learn some new ways to represent phonemes.
  • Spell common exception words correctly.
  • Spell contraction words correctly (can’t, don’t).
  • Add suffixes to spell longer words (-ment, -ness, -ful and -less).
  • Use the possessive apostrophe. (singular) (for example, the girl’s book)
  • Distinguish between homophones and near-homophones.
  • Leave spaces between words.
  • Use the word ‘and’ to join words and sentences.
  • Begin to punctuate using a capital letter for the name of people, places, the days of the week and I.
  • Use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms.
  • Use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation and command.
  • Use extended noun phrases to describe and specify (e.g. the blue butterfly).
  • Use subordination (when, if, that or because).
  • Use coordination (or, and, but).
  • Use some features of standard written English.
  • Use the present and past tenses correctly, including the progressive form.
  • Discuss writing with the teacher and other pupils.
  • Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing: word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark.
  • Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing: verb, tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma.
  • Read aloud writing clearly enough to be heard by peers and the teacher.
  • Read aloud writing with some intonation.
Writing Years 3 and 4
 
By the end of Year 3 pupils should have a basic grasp of all of this content. By the end of Year 4 pupils should have an advancing understanding of this content, whilst some will have a deep understanding.
 
In Years 3 and 4 pupils:
  • Apply a growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology).
  • Read further exception words, noting the spellings.
  • Draw inferences from reading.
  • Predict from details stated and implied.
  • Recall and summarise main ideas.
  • Discuss words and phrases that capture the imagination.
  • Retrieve and record information from non-fiction, using titles, headings, subheadings and indexes.
  • Prepare poems and plays to read aloud with expression, volume, tone and intonation.
  • Identify recurring themes and elements of different stories (e.g. good triumphing over evil).
  • Recognise some different forms of poetry.
  • Explain and discuss understanding of reading, maintaining focus on the topic.
  • Draw inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence.
  • Predict what might happen from details stated and implied.
  • Identify main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarise these.
  • Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.
  • Ask questions to improve understanding of a text.
Writing Years 5 and 6
 
By the end of Year 5 pupils should have a basic grasp of all of this content. By the end of Year 6 pupils should have an advancing understanding of this content, whilst some will have a deep understanding.
 
In Years 5 and 6 pupils:
  • Identify the audience for writing.
  • Choose the appropriate form of writing using the main features identified in reading.
  • Note, develop and research ideas.
  • Plan, draft, write, edit and improve.
  • Use the techniques that authors use to create characters, settings and plots.
  • Create vivid images by using alliteration, similes, metaphors and personification.
  • Interweave descriptions of characters, settings and atmosphere with dialogue.
  • Guide the reader by using a range of organisational devices, including a range of connectives.
  • Choose effective grammar and punctuation.
  • Ensure correct use of tenses throughout a piece of writing.
  • Write paragraphs that give the reader a sense of clarity.
  • Write paragraphs that make sense if read alone.
  • Write cohesively at length.
  • Write sentences that include:
    • relative clauses
    • modal verbs
    • relative pronouns
    • brackets
    • parenthesis
    • a mixture of active and passive voice
    • a clear subject and object
    • hyphens, colons and semi colons
    • bullet points.
  • Write fluently and legibly with a personal style.
  • Use prefixes appropriately.
  • Spell some words with silent letters (knight, psalm and solemn).
  • Distinguish between homophones and other words that are often confused.
  • Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that some words need to be learned specifically.
  • Use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words.
  • Use the first three or four letters of a word to look up the meaning or spelling of words in a dictionary.
  • Use a thesaurus.
  • Spell the vast majority of words correctly.
  • Develop understanding of writing concepts by:
    • Recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms.
    • Using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence.
    • Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause.
    • Using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely.
    • Using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility.
    • Using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun.
  • Indicate grammatical and other features by:
    • Using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing.
    • Using hyphens to avoid ambiguity.
    • Using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis.
    • Using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses.
    • Using a colon to introduce a list.
    • Punctuating bullet points consistently.
  • Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading:
Year 5
  • relative clause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity.
Year 6
  • active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi- colon, bullet points

  • Perform compositions, using appropriate intonation and volume.